.htaccess file

.htaccess file sits at the root directory of a webhosting folder.  You can modify this file to implement some security measures.  In my case, I needed to use FileZila to be able to see it, download it, and upload the modified version of it.  How to configure FileZilla was a major pain (see my article on Filezilla --> https://www.estat.us/file-zilla/ ).

This below prevents Chrome browser to indicate that your website is not secure.  This turns the web URL to begin with https (with S at the end) instead of just http and I believe S means extra security.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

You also want to prevent visitors to see the contents of a subfolder.

# Disable directory browsing
Options All -Indexes








To upload and download files from the hosting company's web folders to one's own PC (vice versa)

FileZilla is a name of the Free FTP software.  Download FileZilla client, not FileZilla Server from:


When you start FileZilla, there are four horizontally long windws to which you provide thee following information

Host:  <this depends on a hosting company, but it may look like bbbb.dreamhost.com>
User: <you have to create an FTP user>
Password: [FTP password]
Port: 22

Before all this, you need to create an FTP user account on the hosting company's website by logging into your account.  To make FTP a secured FTP connection, you need to choose SFTP.  If just FTP, all information you submit through the FTP connection are leaking into the world of web.

When the computer stops connecting to the Internet

My company laptop stopped connecting to the Internet.  It was connected to Wifi, but my Outlook, Skype, the browsers were not responding.  The problem was that the computer was not finding the right parameters for IP and DNS server addresses.   This is how the technician fixed it for me.

Right-click the wi-fi icon at the right bottom corner of the screen and chose "open network and sharing center."

On the left side of the window that just opened, click on "Change adapter settings."  Find the computer icon that is active.  In my case, I see seven computer icons and one of them with "Wi-Fi" is highlighted.  Other icons say "disabled," "not connected," "network cable unplugged," etc.  Right-click on the right computer icon and choose "properties."

The window "Wi-Fi properties" will pop up.  Scroll down to Internet Protocol Version 4 and click on it.  If your setting is right, you will see the following two active/clicked on:

  • Obtain an IP address automatically
  • Obtain DNS server address automatically

If these were not selected (and instead the specific values were chosen), you need to select them.

I think the automatic setting means that the computer will flexibly and dynamically choose whatever IP address and DNS server address are relevant at the time of active connection.  In other words, the reason why the computer was not connecting to the Internet was that the specific values for the IP and DNS server addresses were imposed on  the computer for an unknown reason.